Our programme explores how diverse national, regional, and international inter-governmental organizations (IOs) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) learn, adapt, and interact in response to shocks amidst periods of turbulence. Understanding the lessons derived from these interactions is vital for shaping future approaches to managing shocks.

We are interested in processes of internal institutional adaptation, scrutinizing how organizations at various levels reform and adapt themselves in the aftermath of shocks, and political adaptation and redesign, addressing new challenges and rethinking responsibilities. Despite the proliferation of IOs and NGOs, our research suggests that geopolitical regimes and major power collaborations remain pivotal in determining the rules governing shock management. Yet, we highlight significant gaps in these regimes that warrant attention. A central concern for the 21st century is the viability and legitimacy of top-down governance, raising issues of inclusion and justice, particularly among emerging players in the Global South. Lastly, we explore the intricate links between inter-state institutions and other actors' responses to shocks, bridging the tension between top-down studies of international governance and bottom-up initiatives, often manifested in transnational civil society movements.